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8 Jan 2018 admin

however, doctors encourage women to do them during pregnancy and continue them for life.lost control over the vehicle.they said. indicated a solid cultural continuity at the site across thousands of years. which would not have penetrated the soil.” Greek? Bouckaert et al. Science (2012) But many archaeologists noted that genetic and archaeological studies did indeed suggest massive ancient migrations from the Middle East into Europe that could have brought PIE and sparked such language diversification In 2003 evolutionary biologists Russell Gray and Quentin Atkinson of the University of Auckland in New Zealand used computational methods from evolutionary biology to track words as they changed over time and concluded that the Anatolian hypothesis was right But steppe supporters remained unconvinced even after Gray’s team published a confirming analysis in Science in 2012 Fans of the steppe hypothesis are now hailing a genetics study that used ancient DNA from 69 Europeans who lived between 8000 and 3000 years ago to genetically track ancient population movements The work now posted on the bioRxiv preprint server was done by a large team led by geneticists David Reich and Iosif Lazaridis of Harvard Medical School in Boston and Wolfgang Haak of the University of Adelaide in Australia Among the team’s samples were nine ancient individuals—six males two females and a child of undetermined sex—from the Yamnaya culture north of the Black Sea in today’s Russia Beginning about 6000 years ago these steppe people herded cattle and other animals buried their dead in earthen mounds called kurgans and may have created some of the first wheeled vehicles (Many linguists think PIE already had a word for “wheel”) The team also retrieved ancient DNA from four skeletons from the later Corded Ware culture of central Europe known for the distinctive pottery for which they are named (see photo above) as well as their dairy farming skills Archaeologists had noted similarities among these cultures especially in their emphasis on cattle herding The team focused on sections of DNA that they suspected would provide markers for past population movements and identified nearly 400000 DNA positions across the genome in each individual They used new techniques to zero in on the key positions in the nuclear DNA allowing them to analyze twice as many ancient nuclear DNA samples from Europe and Asia as previously reported in the entire literature The comparison of the two cultures’ DNA showed that the four Corded Ware people could trace an astonishing three-quarters of their ancestry to the Yamnaya That suggests a massive migration of Yamnaya people from their steppe homeland into central Europe about 4500 years ago one that could have spread an early form of the Indo-European language the team concludes Thus the paper for the first time links two far-flung material cultures to specific genetic signatures and to each other—and suggests the team says that they spoke a form of Indo-European The Corded Ware culture soon spread across north and central Europe extending as far as today’s Scandinavia So the “steppe ancestry” as the authors of the preprint call it is found in most present-day Europeans who can trace their ancestry back to both the Corded Ware people and the earlier Yamnaya The work thus adds to genetic findings from last fall showing that the genetic makeup of today’s Europeans is more complicated than anyone expected The results are a “smoking gun” that an ancient migration into Europe from the steppe occurred says Pontus Skoglund an ancient DNA specialist who is now working in Reich’s lab but was not a co-author on the paper (Although the paper is publicly available on a preprint server it is not yet published and the authors declined to discuss their work until it’s published) The paper “levels the playing field between the steppe hypothesis and the Anatolian hypothesis by showing that the spread of farming was not the only large migration into Europe” Skoglund says The second new paper to address PIE’s origin in press at Language and due to be published online during the last week of February uses linguistic data to focus on when PIE arose A team led by University of California Berkeley linguists Andrew Garrett and Will Chang employed the language database and evolutionary methods previously used by Gray to create a family tree of the Indo-European languages from their first origins in PIE But in certain cases Garrett and Chang’s group declared that one language was directly ancestral to another and put that into their tree as a certainty For example they assumed that Latin was directly ancestral to Romance languages such as Spanish French and Italian—something that many but not all linguists agree on—and that Vedic Sanskrit was directly ancestral to the Indo-Aryan languages spoken on the shlf1314n subcontinent These constraints transformed the results from what Gray’s team has published: Garrett Chang and their colleagues found that the origins of PIE were about 6000 years ago consistent with the steppe hypothesis but not the Anatolian because the farming migration out of the Middle East was 8000 years ago Once the original PIE speakers began to sweep out of the steppes about 4500 years ago their languages spread and diversified Garrett’s team says But many supporters of the Anatolian hypothesis remain staunchly unconvinced Paul Heggarty a linguist at the Max Planck Institute for Evolutionary Anthropology in Leipzig Germany questions Garrett’s methods arguing that for example linguists cannot be sure if the Latin attested to in written documents really was the direct ancestor of later Romance languages rather than some dialect of Latin for which no record remains Even small differences in the true ancestral language Heggarty insists could throw off the timing estimates As for the Reich paper many archaeologists and linguists praise the data on ancient migrations But they challenge what they see as its speculative link to language The movement out of the steppes Renfrew says “may be a secondary migration into central Europe 3000 to 4000 years later than the spread of farmers which first brought Indo-European speech to Europe” If so the Yamnaya steppe people would not have spoken PIE but an already derived Indo-European tongue ancestral to today’s Balto-Slavic languages such as Russian and Polish Heggarty says He adds that the wording of the Reich paper is “misleading” Indeed in a lengthy discussion in the paper’s Supplementary Information section Reich and colleagues do concede that “the ultimate question of the Proto-Indo-European homeland is unresolved by our data” They suggest that more ancient DNA especially from points east of the steppes may finally tie our linguistic history with our genes Related News Murlidharan was initially reluctant but agreed after the medicos persuaded him.

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